Simple Present


[VERB] + s/es in third person
  • You speak English.
  • Do you speak English?
  • You do not speak English.
Complete List of Simple Present Forms :

Most Verbs

Most verbs conjugate like the verb "run" below. Notice how you add an "s" to third-person forms. Third-person negative forms and third-person questions are made using "does."
Positive Negative Question
run. do not run. Do I run?
You run. You do not run. Do you run?
We run. We do not run. Do we run?
They run. They do not run. Do they run?
He runs. He does not run. Does he run?
She runs. She does not run. Does she run?
It runs. It does not run. Does it run?
Instead of "s," "es" is added to positive, third-person forms of verbs ending with the following sounds: s, z, sh, ch, j or zs (as in Zsa Zsa). These special "es"-forms have been marked below with an asterisk*.
Positive Negative Question
rush. do not rush. Do I rush?
You rush. You do not rush. Do you rush?
We rush. We do not rush. Do we rush?
They rush. They do not rush. Do they rush?
He rushes. * He does not rush. Does he rush?
She rushes. * She does not rush. Does she rush?
It rushes. * It does not rush. Does it rush?

To Have

The verb "have" is irregular in positive, third-person forms. This irregular form has been marked below with an asterisk*.
Positive Negative Question
have. do not have. Do I have?
You have. You do not have. Do you have?
We have. We do not have. Do we have?
They have. They do not have. Do they have?
He has. * He does not have. Does he have?
She has. * She does not have. Does she have?
It has. * It does not have. Does it have?

To Be

The verb "be" is irregular in the Simple Present. It also has different question forms and negative forms.
Positive Negative Question
am. am not. Am I?
You are. You are not. Are you?
We are. We are not. Are we?
They are. They are not. Are they?
He is. He is not. Is he?
She is. She is not. Is she?
It is. It is not. Is it?

Modal Verbs

Modal verbs behave differently from other verbs. Notice that they do not take "s" in the third person - there is no difference between first-person, second-person or third-person forms. Like the verb "be" described above, modal verbs also have different question forms and negative forms in Simple Present.
Positive Negative Question
should go. should not go. Should I go?
You should go. You should not go. Should you go?
We should go. We should not go. Should we go?
They should go. They should not go. Should they go?
He should go. He should not go. Should he go?
She should go. She should not go. Should she go?
It should go. It should not go. Should it go?

USE 1 Repeated Actions

Use the Simple Present to express the idea that an action is repeated or usual. The action can be a habit, a hobby, a daily event, a scheduled event or something that often happens. It can also be something a person often forgets or usually does not do.

  • I play tennis.
  • She does not play tennis.
  • Does he play tennis?
  • The train leaves every morning at 8 AM.
  • The train does not leave at 9 AM.
  • When does the train usually leave?
  • She always forgets her purse.
  • He never forgets his wallet.
  • Every twelve months, the Earth circles the Sun.
  • Does the Sun circle the Earth?

USE 2 Facts or Generalizations

The Simple Present can also indicate the speaker believes that a fact was true before, is true now, and will be true in the future.  It is not important if the speaker is correct about the fact. It is also used to make generalizations about people or things.
  • Cats like milk.
  • Birds do not like milk.
  • Do pigs like milk?
  • California is in America.
  • California is not in the United Kingdom.
  • Windows are made of glass.
  • Windows are not made of wood.
  • New York is a small city. It is not important that this fact is untrue.

USE 3 Scheduled Events in the Near Future

Speakers occasionally use Simple Present to talk about scheduled events in the near future. This is most commonly done when talking about public transportation, but it can be used with other scheduled events as well.
  • The train leaves tonight at 6 PM.
  • The bus does not arrive at 11 AM, it arrives at 11 PM.
  • When do we board the plane?
  • The party starts at 8 o'clock.
  • When does class begin tomorrow?

USE 4 Now (Non-Continuous Verbs)

Speakers sometimes use the Simple Present to express the idea that an action is happening or is not happening now. This can only be done with Non-Continuous Verbs and certain Mixed Verbs.
  • I am here now.
  • She is not here now.
  • He needs help right now.
  • He does not need help now.
  • He has his passport in his hand.
  • Do you have your passport with you?


The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.
  • You only speak English.
  • Do you only speak English?


  • Once a week, Tom cleans the car. Active
  • Once a week, the car is cleaned by Tom. Passive